Proportional representation (PR) is a goal of some methods of distributing seats in legislatures, mostly outside the Anglosphere.
It is very popular in Scandinavia, as well as Germanic or Slavic countries. Proportional representation was used during the French Fourth Republic, while other kinds of voting systems were preferred during the French Third Republic and the French Fifth Republic (with an exception between 1986 and 1987). Fourth Republic. The Fourth Republic of France existed from under the fourth republican constitution.
It was characterized by a weak and decentralized government. Proportional representation is a system whereby elected congress persons (or parliamentarians) owe their primary loyalty to their party rather than to constituent voters in separate geographical The French Fourth Republic was the republican government of France between 1946 and 1958, Gaullist opposition, and the new proportional representation did not create conditions for ministerial stability.
Governmental coalitions were composed of an undisciplined patchwork of centerleft and centerright parties. Opponents to proportional representation even evoke French constitutional history notably the very instable French 4th Republic ( ) as a striking example of how PR leads to political instability, bad government, lack of a clear majority in Parliament, and the rise of extremist singleissue parties.
Proportional representation (PR) South Africa (closed list), Democratic Republic of the Congo (open list), and Ukraine (open list). For elections to the List of countries using proportional representation. Countries by type of PR system. This could be extremely dangerous for developing countries with deep ethnic divisions and recent civil wars. asks where were the failed cases of Proportional Representation.
3233) argues that Proportional Representation gives any wellorganized pressure group a chance to win seats in government which.